Schedule 2016

PROGRAM ȘCOALA DE VARĂ DE LA CRISTIAN 2-7 AUGUST 2016

MARȚI 2 AUGUST

 14.00 Deschidere

 Cuvânt de introducere:

AUREL VAINER, Președintele FCER

PAUL SCHWARTZ, Președinte CEB

ROBERT SCHORR, Șef Oficiu Cultură, Artă, Știință FCER

ADRIAN CIOFLÂNCĂ, Director CSIER

 FELICIA WALDMAN, Centrul pentru Studii Israeliene „Goldstein-Goren” al Facultății de Științe Politice, Universitatea București

 15.00 - 16.30 Keynote speechTIBORI SZABÓ ZOLTÁN (Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Cluj) – Autoreflecții ale intelighenției evreiești în perioada post-Holocaust

 16.30 - 17.00 Pauză de cafea

 17.00 - 18.00 BARAK COHEN (Universitatea Bar-Ilan) – Răspunsuri rabinice la suferință

 18.00 - 19.00 AtelierDANA IONESCU (Universitatea Québec, Montréal) – Identități multiple ale evreilor emigranți

 19.30 Cina

 

MIERCURI 3 AUGUST

 08.00 - 09.30 Mic dejun

 09.30 - 11.00 ADRIAN CIOFLÂNCĂ (CSIER) – Violențele antisemite din România (1866-1944)

 11.00 - 11.15 Pauză de cafea

 11.15 - 13.00 MIHAI CHIOVEANU (FSUB) – Holocaustul în România și Europa

 13.00 - 14.30 Masa de prânz

 14.30 - 16.00 MĂDĂLIN HODOR (CNSAS) – Emigrarea și vânzarea evreilor în perioada comunistă

 16.00 - 16.15 Pauză de cafea

 16.15 - 18.00 MIHAI DEMETRIADE (CNSAS) – Fapte și construcții narative în ancheta Marelui Jaf din 28 iulie 1959

 18.00 - 19.00 AtelierȘTEFAN IONESCU (ICUB) – Prezentarea cărții de autorJewish Resistance to “Romanianization” 1940-1944, Palgrave, 2015

 19.00 Cina

 

JOI 4 AUGUST

 08.00 - 09.30 Mic dejun

 09.30 - 11.00 BÜLENT ŞENAY (Universitatea Uludag, Bursa - Turcia) – Evreii în Imperiul Otoman

 11.00 - 11.15 Pauză de cafea

 11.15 - 13.00 FELICIA WALDMAN (Centrul pentru Studii Israeliene „Goldstein-Goren”, FSUB)– Evreii otomani în România modernă

 13.00 - 14.30 Masa de prânz

 14.30 - 16.00 LYA BENJAMIN (CSIER) – Literați și artiști evrei între discriminare și creație în perioada Holocaustului

 16.00 - 16.15 Pauză de cafea

 16.15 - 18.00 FRANCESCA SOLOMON (Universitatea „A.I. Cuza”, Iași) – Evreii din Bucovina în perioada modernă. Repere istorice, culturale și literare

 18.00 - 19.00 AtelierBIATRICE COZMOLICI (artist independent) – Teatrul oprimaților

 19.00 Cina

 

VINERI 5 AUGUST

 08.00 - 09.30 Mic dejun

 09.30 - 11.00 MICHAEL SHAFIR (Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Cluj) – „Servim Republica Populară Română”: Scriitori evrei și comunismul de la iluzie la deziluzie

 11.00 - 11.15 Pauză de cafea

 11.15 - 13.00 VICTOR NEUMANN (Universitatea de Vest, Timișoara) – Evreii României. Între local și universal

 13.00 - 14.00 Masa de prânz

 14.00 - 16.00 AtelierROMULUS BALAZS (regizor, Paris) – Proiecția filmului documentar Souvenirs de Iasiși dezbatere

 17.00 Serviciu religios, Sinagoga Brașov

 19.00 Masa de Shabat laComunitatea Evreilor din Brașov

 

SÂMBĂTĂ 6 AUGUST

 08.00 - 09.30 Mic dejun

 09.30 - 11.00 AtelierDANIEL DUMITRAN (Universitatea „1 Decembrie 1918”, Alba Iulia) – Conservarea cimitirului evreiesc

 11.00 - 11.15 Pauză de cafea

 11.15 - 13.00 AtelierCRISTIAN GACHE (Asociația Istoria Artei) – Fotografie istorică

 13.00 - 14.00 Masa de prânz

 17.00 - 19.00 Vizionarea filmului documentar Charging the Rhino, regizat de Simcha Jacobovici, și dezbatere

 19.00 Cina

 21.00 Foc de tabără

 

DUMINICĂ 7 AUGUST

09.00 - 10.00 Mic dejun

 Plecarea participanților

 

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Schedule 2015

 

Landmarks in the History of Romanian Jewry

 

Sunday, 2nd August

13.00 - 16.00 Arrival and registration of the participants

16.00 – 19.00 Official opening ceremony

16.00 – 17.00 Opening remarks:

Prof. Liviu Rotman, PhD, director of the Centre for the Study of Romanian Jewry and coordinator of the summer school

Aurel Vainer, PhD, President of the Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania

Tiberiu Roth, President of the Brașov Jewish Community

17.00 – 19.00 Keynote speaker:

Prof. Rafael Vago, PhD, Tel Aviv University- The typology of Romanian Jewries – Central European? East European? South East European? In Search for a non-existing definition

19.00 - 20.00 Dinner

 

Monday, 3rd August

08.00 - 09.00 Breakfast

09.00 - 10.00 Introduction of participants

10.00 - 12.00 Prof. Liviu Rotman, PhD, SNSPA/Centre for the Study of Romania Jewry- Jewish Society in Romania- A View from the Inside

12.00 - 12.30 Coffee Break

12.30 - 14.30 Prof. Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu, PhD, University of Bucharest – Jews and Romanians in Moldova in the Regulatory Period (First Half of the 19th Century)

14.30 - 15.30 Lunch

15.30 - 16.00 Free Time

16.00 - 18.00 Cristian Vasile, PhD, “Nicolae Iorga” History Institute- Post-war Communist Cultural Policies in Romania: from the Internationalist Dimension to a National Stalinism with Xenophobic Trends

18.00 - 19.00 Free time                         

19.00 - 20.00 Dinner

 

Tuesday, 4th August

08.00 - 09.00 Breakfast

09.30 - 11.30 Prof. Madeea Axinciuc, PhD, University of Bucharest – Hasidism and Hesychasm: Consonance and Synchronicity. An Approach on the Philosophy of Religion

11.30 – 12.00 Coffee Break 

12.00 – 14.00 Prof. Camelia Crăciun, PhD, University of Bucharest / Centre for the Study of Romania Jewry – Classic Yiddish Literature in Romania 

14.00 – 15.00 Lunch

15.00 - 17.00 Free time

17.00 - 19.00 Roundtable: Controversial Issues in the History of Romanian Jews; Prof. Liviu Rotman, Phd, prof. Mordechai Zalkin, PhD, prof. Raphael Vago, PhD.

19.00 - 20.00 Dinner

 

Wednesday, 5th August

08.00 - 09.00 Breakfast

09.30 - 11.30 Prof. Mordechai Zalkin, PhD, Ben-Gurion University - East European Jewry: Who is in? who is out? or - what is it all about?

11.30 – 12.00 Coffee Break

12.00 – 14.00 Prof. Ládislau Gyémánt, PhD, Babeş-Bolyai University- The Jews of Transylvania and Their Role in the History of the Romanian Area. A Comparative Perspective.

14.00 – 15.00 Lunch

15.00 - 17.00 Free Time

17.00 – 19.00 Movie night and debate: Radu Gabrea - Rumenye, Rumenye (2006); Prof. Liviu Rotman, PhD, Prof. Raphael Vago, PhD, Prof. Mordechai Zalkin, PhD, Prof. Ladislau Gyemant, PhD.

19.00 - 20.00 Dinner

 

Thursday, 6th August

08.00 - 09.00 Breakfast

09.30 - 11.30 Lya Benjamin, PhD, Centre for the Study of Romania Jewry – Emancipation and Auto-emancipation in the Case of Romanian Jews

11.30 – 12.00 Coffee Break

12.00 – 14.00 Adrian Cioflâncă, “A. D. Xenopol” History Institute  / Centre for the Study of Romanian Jewry – Narratives of Violence in the Discourse of Ion Antonescu’s Regime

14.00 – 15.00 Lunch

15.00 - 17.00 Free time

17.00 - 19.00 Roundtable: The Museum for the History of Romanian Jews; prof. Liviu Rotman, PhD, Adrian Cioflâncă, Prof. Lucian Nastasă Kovacs, PhD, prof. Ladislau Gyemant, PhD; prof. Camelia Crăciun, PhD.

19.00 - 20.00 Dinner

 

Friday, 7th August

08.00 - 09.00 Breakfast

09.30 - 11.30 Prof. Lucian Nastasă Kovacs, PhD, Babeş-Bolyai University / “George Bariţiu” History Institute – Universitary anti-Semitism in Romania (1919-1939)

11.30 – 12.00 Coffee Break

12.00 – 14.00 Anca Tudorancea (Ciuciu), PhD, Centre for the Study of Romania Jewry – The Lipsicani Street –Visual Archeology of the Jewish Stores in the Interwar Period

14.00 – 15.00 Lunch

15.00 - 16.00 Free Time

16.00 – 21.00 Visit to the Jewish Community in Brașov

 

Saturday, 8th August

08.00 - 09.00 Breakfast

09.30 - 11.30 prof. Alexandru Florian, PhD, “Dimitrie Cantemir” Christian University / The National Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania – The Memory of the Holocaust in Post-communism

11.30 – 12.00 Coffee Break

12.00 – 14.00 Closing remarks

Prof. Liviu Rotman, PhD, director of the Centre for the Study of Romanian Jewry and coordinator of the summer school

14.00 – 15.00 Lunch

15.00 - 19.00 Free time

19.00 - 20.00 Dinner, bonfire

Sunday, 9th August

Departure

 

 

  • Prof. Dr. Madeea Axinciuc - Hasidism and Hesychasm: Consonance and Synchronicity. An Approach on the Philosophy of Religion

The lecture proposes a critical discussion on the concept of synchronicity, starting from the comparative analysis of the two mystical trends, Hasidism and Hesychasm, as both appeared and were developed in geographical areas and times that overlap. Beyond the issue of the legitimacy of any comparative study on mystical trends stemming from different traditions – in this case, the Jewish and Christian traditions – the obvious spatial and temporal junction placed the relationship between Hasidism and Hesychasm in a new perspective, revealing threads and bridges that were equally non-explicit and unexplained.

  • Dr. Lya Benjamin – Emancipation and Auto-emancipation in the Case of Romanian Jews

In a short introduction we will discuss the concept of emancipation and the issues caused by it in the context of the Jewish European diaspora. References will be made related to the status of the Jews in Europe in the Middle Ages and to the genesis of the idea of emancipation in Western Europe and then in Central and Eastern Europe.

We will shortly present the status of the Jews in Romania in the 18th and 19th centuries in relation to their situation after the Organic Regulations were implemented, following the ways in which these laws have made the situation worse for the Jews in Romania on the one hand, and, on the other, the way they have marked the beginning of the fight for emancipation. We will elaborate on the 1848 Revolution and on its significance in the development of the emancipatory conscience of the Romanian Jewry. We will refer to the legislation regarding the situation of the Jews during Cuza Vodă’s reign. The concepts of emancipation and auto-emancipation will be explained and the distinct views on auto-emancipation will be clarified (Leon Pinsker-the Zionist solution and Moses Mendelssohn –auto-emancipation as integration in the culture of the country Jews lived in). In Romania’s case, the 19th and 20th centuries will be analysed both from the perspective of emancipation and auto-emancipation.

We wish to bring to light what the construction of Templul Coral meant in terms of auto-emancipation and the forms that the fight for emancipation and auto-emancipation will take after the 1866 Constitution. The process will be explained with reference to the Jewish organisations that have played a decisive role (in 1909 Uniunea Evreilor Pământeni is formed and then, in 1923, it is turned into Uniunea Evreilor Români), and in terms of key personalities of the movement as well (Iuliu Barasch, Adolf Stern, Wilhelm Filderman, etc.). We will conclude our presentation with illustrating the way in which emancipation was annihilated through the judiciary status adopted by the Gigurtu government on August 9th, 1940.

Emancipation in Transylvania will be analysed throughout the talk in terms of the particularities of the process in this region.

  •  Adrian Cioflâncă - Narratives of Violence in the Discourse of Ion Antonescu’s Regime

Romania’s participation in the Holocaust was subject of very different and contradictory narratives during and after the war, depending on the ideological background, political atmosphere and modes of historical knowledge. When antisemitic crimes occurred, the authorities of Ion Antonescu’s regime – the perpetrators – described them as defensive, preventive or retributive measures triggered by military necessities. As they engaged deeper in mass killings, Antonescu and his representatives moved rapidly from the diversionary rhetoric of „the security imperatives” to genocidal discourse inspired by the project of ethnic cleansing and the instrumentality of extreme violence.

  • Dr. Camelia Crăciun Classic Yiddish Literature in Romania

The need for translations able to make Yiddish national literature available to Jewish masses appeared early, within the context of the larger acculturation process, being subsequently consolidated by the need to assert this literature within the world’s cultural environment. The first translations identified in Romania appear early, starting from the period of creation of the great classic authors, demonstrating the rapid circulation of values and the ideological need of identity grounding of the acculturated masses by use of literature and culture. The current lecture focuses on authors, translators, editors and cultural policies which influenced the publishing environment over time in order to present the evolution of the situation of Yiddish literature within Romanian culture.

  • Prof. Dr. Alexandru Florian The Memory of the Holocaust in Post-communism

After 1990, the public memory of the Holocaust has been transmitted in contradictory messages. There is no regulated and unified management of the public space in order to allow a symbolism in compliance with historical facts and events. Basically, two types of memory are being constructed: the "good" and "bad" memory. This classification is based on the way according to which the two main actors are represented: the victims and the perpetrators or the ones who were responsible for the events.

  • Prof. Dr. Ladislau Gyémánt - The Jews of Transylvania and Their Role in the History of the Romanian Area. A Comparative Perspective.

The lecture aims to present key moments in the 2000 year old historical destiny of the Jews in Transylvania, from the first mentions of their presence in Roman Dacia to the tragedy of the Holocaust in the two entities of Northern and Southern Transylvania, respectively the survivors’ choice between the newly established State of Israel and the continuous struggle to maintain a Jewish presence under a new dictatorship - Communism - and later in the quite contradictory post-communist society. This comparative vision aims to continuously follow-up similar realities in the lands east and south of the Carpathians Mountains, emphasizing the specific features of Jewish life in Moldavia and Wallachia by comparing the life of Transylvanian Jews, as well as the inherent connections established between these areas of Jewish development, in terms of quite different social, economic and political conditions (for example, during the struggle for the emancipation of citizens or during the Holocaust), which determined clearly ascertainable differences in the institutional, religious and cultural life, in survival policies and in the promotion of their interests, attitudes and mutual communal or individual connections. We will see the extent to which the integration into the common borders of interwar Greater Romania mitigated or enhanced these specific features, in certain ways, and the influence of the great traumas caused by modern anti-Semitism, by the Holocaust and the various dictatorships of the twentieth century, as well as the establishment and rise of a certain solidarity in the case of Romanian Jews of various territorial origins, which can be found, in a vast majority, in the newly forged Israeli society.

  • Prof. Dr. Lucian Nastasă Kovács - University anti-Semitism in Romania (1919-1939)

The present study intends to show some elements that can characterise the existence of the anti-Semitism in inter-war Romania, in the place where it appeared most clearly: the University. This is the space in which the anti-Semitic faction became an important force, generating a climate that expressed itself through agitation and violence, a climate that was cultivated and sustained by the so-called “nationalistic” student corporations and that will degenerate into a political action under the flag of such organisations or parties as the Social Christian League, the Romanian Action, the National-Romanian Fascia, the National-Christian Defence League, the Archangel Michael Legion, All For the Country, the Iron Guard etc. In order to clear up the eventual circumstances of the anti-Semitic “crisis” after the First World War, we must evoke some very diverse socio-historical realities, sometimes impossible to be controlled in an optimal manner. In the sociological practice the difficulty of the explanations resides in the fact that we don’t have those indispensable studies yet, concerning the distribution of the anti-Semitic potential in the social space.

  • Prof. univ. dr. Liviu Rotman –Jewish Society in Romania- a View from the Inside

Whoever wishes to approach the history of the Jewish people by reading classic works such as those written by Heinrich Gratz and Simom Dubnow or Paul Johnson, will find that this history is one of survival, despite repeated attempts of destruction. A simple – even simplistic – timeline of these works show us the various stages of destruction attempts: expulsions, the Inquisition, ghettoization, pogroms and the corollary thereof: the Holocaust. Survival is, in fact, the essence of the historical Jewish process. Survival is in spite and against various projects of extermination. Perhaps the Hebrew word dafca (in spite) could be considered a key concept in the history of the Jews.

More than in the case of other peoples, for the Jews, hostility, with various shapes and shades, takes a central, even exclusive place in the historical narrative. Thus, the classic history of the Jews is generally a "look from outside" or an analysis of the complex relations with the others. When it is not about confrontation, this history of the "external perspective" is expressed by a positive view, that of cohabitation or of the often remarkable contribution of the Jews to the history of the others (in economy, science, culture, etc.)

This overexposure – for good reasons – of the exterior perspective entailed the neglect of the "inner perspective", namely the organization of Jewish life at its various levels.

Thus, we can say that Jewish historiography was mainly one of confrontation, conflicts or of collaboration, and less one of Jewish life proper. We know much more about the Jews and others than about the Jews by themselves. 

This inner perspective is of major interest for us researchers, because its analysis can reveal an explanation for the survival, as well as the mechanismsI mentioned above, for mechanisms are found in the internal Jewish organization pattern.

  • Dr. Anca Turoancea (Ciuciu) -The Lipscani Street - Visual Archeology of the Jewish Stores in the Interwar Period

One of the oldest trade areas in Bucharest has not changed its century-old fashion-related focus, even in the darkest periods of history. Recently, we witness, with very few exceptions, the rewriting of the commercial history in this central area, as the new establishments often refer to stories belonging to other areas (Dublin, London, etc) and totally ignore the history of the buildings that host them.

This study aims to recover lost trade stories of small and large stores through archive documentation, as well as the use of old media sources and personal histories. Last, but not least, advertising brings us valuable information about trade mechanisms.

  •   Prof. Dr. Raphael Vago - The typology of Romanian Jewries – Central European?  East European? South East European? In search for a non-existing definition

The aim of the lecture is to raise several questions and issues to which we have several answers and definitions. The major feature is to present the varieties of Romanian Jewries – the enormous diversity between various parts of the community, in different historical periods and an almost futile attempt to define Romanian Jewries in terms of being "Eastern, Central or South Eastern".

The emphasis on "Romanian Jewries" and not "Romanian Jews", or the "Jews of Romania" indicates that because of the changing patterns and the borders of the emerging Romanian state, the various Jewish communities became part of the Romanian state, or lost such a status, with the changing geo-political situations. Thus, the lecture will present the basic components of Romanian Jewries in the modern period.

Moreover, the internal structures, religious and cultural patterns of the Jewish population of the various parts of the Romanian state indicated deep internal differences between the Jewish population of the various areas and regions.

Thus, a major question is that of trying to place the Romanian Jewish experience in a wider regional context – how much Romanian Jewries had a Central European, East European or South-East European character? In order to try and answer this question – the basic characteristics of the Jewish population will be presented, mainly based on the typology used by Ezra Mendelsohn, who passed away in 2015, in is well known study "Jews of East-Central Europe", (1983) an interesting definition in itself.

The conclusion of the lecture will be that Romanian Jewries reflected the situation of Romania itself – a bridge between East and West, North and South – a convergence of ethnic and religious diversity, a meeting point between tradition and modernity, often an area of clashing and competing political traditions and cultures.  

  •   Dr. Cristian Vasile - Post-war Communist Cultural Policies in Romania: from the Internationalist Dimension to a National Stalinism with Xenophobic Trends

The lecture will focus on two levels: the first level captures the changes that occurred over the decades of communist rule in cultural policies, including changes that are manifested in terms of their stand on the cultural rights of national minorities and their representation in ministries, supervisory ideological bodies, cultural / literary / artistic institutions and educational establishments.

The second level focuses on communist cultural policies in terms of their institutional dimension, while emphasizing both the moments when the importance of ideological leaders rose and the campaigns that tended to modify the profile (including the ethnic profile) of cultural institutions, magazines, universities (the so-called campaign to "improve the national composition").

Finally, the lecture will insist on the developments - imposed by the ideological bodies in charge of drafting and enforcing cultural policies - regarding the (only or desirable) method of literary and artistic creation: from socialist realism (also called jdanovism or proletcultism) – which was pro-Soviet, internationalist and censorial in the highest degree – that dominated the period 1948-1960, to a socialist and revolutionary humanism which also included (especially from the mid-1970’s) a protochronist layer with xenophobic, nationalist and anti-Semitic trends.

  •   Prof. Dr. Prof. Mordechai (Motti) Zalkin- East European Jewry: Who is in? who is out? or - what is it all about?

Based on the assumption that the Jews lived in the area that stretches from the shores of the Black Sea to those of the Baltic Sea, from the banks of the Dnieper River to those of the Oder River constituted a homogeneous religious-cultural commonwealth, Jewish historiography traditionally related to these Jews as members of a collective entity, known as "Eastern European Jewry". In my lecture I will examine the premises behind this theory, discuss the question whether such a collective entity did exist, and offer some other options which might shed new light on the question under discussion.